Gunnera is a truly ancient plant, having evolved some 150 million years ago, around the time of the dinosaurs. Named after Norwegian botanist Johan Ernst Gunnerus (who, by the way, described the basking shark and gave it its scientific name, Squalus maximus), Gunnera possesses glands that contain a cyanobacterium, Nostoc, which fixes nitrogen for the plant, meaning that Gunnera can live in what most plants would consider poor conditions. In fact, Gunnera is the only flowering plant in the world that has a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium (all other nitrogen-fixing plant relationships are with the eukaryotic so-called “true” bacteria rather than prokaryotic cyanobacteria), making the plant of intense interest to molecular botanists. Gunnera is also of interest to indigenous peoples of the Chilean and Peruvian Andes; they eat the tender young stalks and leaves of the plant, called ‘nalcas’ in Spanish.
Native to southern Chile, Gunnera tinctoria was first brought to Ireland in 1939 as an ornamental plant. Its popularity as a garden plant grew quickly, and the plant did well since it was growing in a climate similar to its southern hemisphere home. However, despite the similarities of climatic conditions, it was growing in a community of completely different plants without its natural competitors and predators. It began to spread, and now Gunnera tinctoria is found on western Ireland’s coastal cliffs, waterways, roadsides, wet meadows and derelict gardens and fields. Propagating both by seed and by vegetative means, in early spring its leaves begin to grow and in just weeks can reach over 2 meters in height, shading all plants growing below its 2 meter wide leaves. Gunnera tinctoria is now a major threat to plant biodiversity in some areas of Ireland, because smaller plants cannot grow in the shadow created by the giant leaves. To fight the spread of this plant, Ireland is now applying herbicides to get rid of it. Bad news indeed.
Law (2003) states that, “G. tinctoria is a large, clump-forming, herbaceous plant that grows up to 2m in height. It has stout horizontal rhizomes, and massive umbrella-sized leaves on sturdy petioles. The leaves and their stems are covered in rubbery prickles. Tiny green flowers occur in early summer on conical spikes.” The Taranaki Regional Council (2003) state that, “G. tinctoria is a perennial with an exotic tropical appearance with spiny stems some 1.5 to 2m tall. The flower stems resemble elongated broccoli and number up to five per plant, standing up to 1m tall and rising from the base of the leaves (each seed head may contain in excess of 80,000 seeds). In severe winter conditions the plant dies down for the winter and grows new leaves in spring.”
Plants for a Future (2000) reports that young leaf stalks can be peeled and cooked as a vegetable or eaten raw. They are “Acidic and refreshing”. G. tinctoria also has medicinal uses as an astringent. This species can also be used as to make a black dye is obtained from the root, and has been used as a roof covering Plants for a Future, 2000). Williams et al. (2005) reports that, “In Southern Chile (at latitudes of 36º-42ºS) G. tinctoria is a delicacy associated with Mapuche Indian customs. The young petioles are commonly sold by street vendors and eaten raw, along with salt and chilli to enhance the flavour (E. Villouta pers. comm. 2004).”
In nature, all Gunnera plants form a symbiosis with a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, thought to be exclusively Nostoc punctiforme. The bacteria enter the plant via glands found at the base of each leaf stalk and initiate an intracellular symbiosis which is thought to provide the plant with fixed nitrogen in return for fixed carbon for the bacterium. This intracellular interaction is unique in flowering plants and may provide insights to allow the creation of novel symbioses between crop plants and cyanobacteria, allowing growth in areas lacking fixed nitrogen in the soil.
Source: tofinotime by Josie Osborne, Tofino – Wiki
Very interesting plant. Thanks for sharing.
It’s a really impressive plant. So late-model dinos – the horn-faced triceratops or the duckbills – could easily have munched on those enormous leaves. 🙂
I would love to taste this with salt and chili! :-p Yum.
Yes! Yes! Yes! good idea.
Nalca with salt and chile? Get in my tummy too! 🙂
My experience is that it tastes like poison. May be healthy but I recommend leaving it to the Chileans.
Thanks for posting this. I am interested in natural dyes so the reference to using the roots to obtain black is intriguing. I can’t imagine harvesting the roots though of this colossal plant nicknamed ‘Squalus maximus’ by the Norwegian botanist who “discovered” it. It grows here on the west coast (Vancouver) as well, not sure if it has become a pest tho.
Thanks for your great information, the contents are quiet interesting.I will be waiting for your next post.
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Can you get it in Australia
Yes, Macedon ranges florist, We have one imported from Chile. IT IS HUGE!! and per-historic!! needs shades full shade and a fair amount of water.
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It is plenty in Marybrough Victoria.. I found it there in 1991 and was used to make a beer of some kind.
Is root ever used as a medicine or food
Is root ever used as a medicine or food
Yes the root like it’s smaller more edible cousin Rhubarb has been used as a laxative, infact Rhubarb was introduced to Europe as a dried root precisely for that purpose, the idea of eating the stems and forcing them like sea kale originates to the early Victorian period in 1830s. It’s raw juice is astringent and has been used on wounds.
Adam Carew – Wild Food